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Your Microbiome and Your Brain
 
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We've talked about the trillions of microbes inside you before, but we're learning that these little creatures may have more influence than you thought! Meet your Microbiome: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ybk7E7SLbWw Hosted by: Olivia Gordon ---------- Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow ---------- Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters—we couldn't make SciShow without them! Shoutout to Kevin Bealer, Mark Terrio-Cameron, KatieMarie Magnone, Patrick Merrithew, Charles Southerland, Fatima Iqbal, Sultan Alkhulaifi, Tim Curwick, Scott Satovsky Jr, Philippe von Bergen, Bella Nash, Chris Peters, Patrick D. Ashmore, Piya Shedden, Charles George ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow ---------- Sources: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4228144/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC414848/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3039072/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4367209/ https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4939-0897-4_3 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3564958/ http://www.nature.com/news/the-tantalizing-links-between-gut-microbes-and-the-brain-1.18557 http://www.nature.com/news/gut-brain-link-grabs-neuroscientists-1.16316 http://www.gastrojournal.org/article/S0016-5085(11)00607-X/abstract?referrer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nature.com%2Fnews%2Fthe-tantalizing-links-between-gut-microbes-and-the-brain-1.18557 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1664925/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4362231/ Images https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gray848.png https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Serotonin-Spartan-HF-based-on-xtal-3D-balls-web.png
Views: 276003 SciShow
How The Gut Microbiota Affects Our Health with Dr. Erica & Dr. Justin Sonnenburg
 
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Dr. Justin Sonnenburg is an associate professor of microbiology and immunology at Stanford and Dr. Erica Sonnenburg is a senior research scientist in the Sonnenburg lab where they the research many aspects the interaction between diet with the 100 trillion or so bacteria in the gut (specifically the colon) and how this impacts the health of the host (which in this case is a laboratory research mouse). In this episode we discuss the pivotal role fiber plays in fueling good bacteria in the gut to produce compounds that regulate the immune system including increasing the number of T regulatory cells, which are specialized types of immune cells that keep the immune system in check and prevent autoimmune responses, and how these compounds also increase other types of blood cells in the body in a process known as hematopoiesis. We also talk about how the lack of fiber in the typical American diet actually starves these good bacteria of their food. This has an effect not only on the immune system and autoimmune diseases but also results in the breakdown of the gut barrier, which leads to widespread inflammation and inflammatory diseases. Lastly, in this podcast, Dr. Erica Sonnenburg talks about how C-sections, have a negative effect on the infant’s gut due to the lack of exposure to bacteria present in the mother’s vaginal canal, and how the use of formula deprives the infant not only from the good bacteria present in Mom’s gut but also from special carbohydrates in breast milk that are good for the infant gut flora known as HMOs or human milk oligosaccharides. ▶︎ Get the show notes! https://www.foundmyfitness.com/episodes/the-sonnenburgs Links related to the Sonnenburgs: ▶︎ http://sonnenburglab.stanford.edu/ ▶︎ http://www.facebook.com/thegoodgut ▶︎http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1594206287/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=1594206287&linkCode=as2&tag=foun06-20&linkId=IOKAGDTRCL47XQN6 Links related to FoundMyFitness: ▶︎ Join my weekly newsletter: http://www.foundmyfitness.com/?sendme=nutrigenomics ▶︎ Crowdfund more videos: http://www.patreon.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Subscribe on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=foundmyfitness ▶︎ Subscribe to the podcast: http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/foundmyfitness/id818198322 ▶︎ Twitter: http://twitter.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/foundmyfitness
Views: 101910 FoundMyFitness
Human Gut Microbiome
 
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Presenter: Lisa Sardinia, PhD, JD Most of the tens of trillions of cells that make up the human body are actually microbes. The gut microbiota make vitamins for us, help us digest food, battle disease-causing microbes, and may influence our behavior.
What is GUT FLORA? What does GUT FLORA mean? GUT FLORA meaning, definition & explanation
 
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What is GUT FLORA? What does GUT FLORA mean? GUT FLORA meaning - GUT FLORA definition - GUT FLORA explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Gut flora (gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota) is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects. The gut metagenome is the aggregate of all the genomes of gut microbiota. The gut is one niche that human microbiota inhabit. In humans, the gut microbiota has the largest numbers of bacteria and the greatest number of species compared to other areas of the body. In humans the gut flora is established at one to two years after birth, and by that time the intestinal epithelium and the intestinal mucosal barrier that it secretes have co-developed in a way that is tolerant to, and even supportive of, the gut flora and that also provides a barrier to pathogenic organisms. The relationship between some gut flora and humans is not merely commensal (a non-harmful coexistence), but rather a mutualistic relationship.:700 Some human gut microorganisms benefit the host by fermenting dietary fiber into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetic acid and butyric acid, which are then absorbed by the host. Intestinal bacteria also play a role in synthesizing vitamin B and vitamin K as well as metabolizing bile acids, sterols, and xenobiotics. The systemic importance of the SCFAs and other compounds they produce are like hormones and the gut flora itself appears to function like an endocrine organ, and dysregulation of the gut flora has been correlated with a host of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. The composition of human gut flora changes over time, when the diet changes, and as overall health changes. A systematic review from 2016 examined the preclinical and small human trials that have been conducted with certain commercially available strains of probiotic bacteria and identified those that had the most potential to be useful for certain central nervous system disorders.
Views: 547 The Audiopedia
How We Communicate with Our Microbiota and How It Communicates with Us
 
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Dr. Karen Madsen, Professor of Medicine at the University of Alberta and Co-director of the "Center of Excellence for Gastrointestinal Inflammation and Immunity Research (CEGIIR) provides a fascinating overview to help us gain an appreciation of how microbial metabolism can influence gut health, understand how gut microbes can modulate immune function and, recognize the different ways in which microbes and the host interact with each other.
Views: 1182 CDHFtube
Crohn's Disease Gene Nod2 Regulates Intestinal Microbiota
 
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Ken Cadwell and colleagues demonstrate that the bacterial sensor Nod2 prevents intestinal inflammation by regulating the intestinal microbiota, particularly the expansion of Bacteroides vulgatus, a common gut commensal. For more information please refer to Ramanan et al, 2014. Video abstract by Deepshika Ramanan and Ken Cadwell.
Views: 3314 Cell Press
What is SKIN FLORA? What does SKIN FLORA mean? SKIN FLORA meaning, definition & explanation
 
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What is SKIN FLORA? What does SKIN FLORA mean? SKIN FLORA meaning - SKIN FLORA definition - SKIN FLORA explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ The term skin flora (also commonly referred to as skin microbiome) refers to the microorganisms which reside on the skin; typically human skin. Many of them are bacteria of which there are around 1000 species upon human skin from 19 phyla. Most are found in the superficial layers of the epidermis and the upper parts of hair follicles. Skin flora is usually non-pathogenic, and either commensal (are not harmful to their host) or mutualistic (offer a benefit). The benefits bacteria can offer include preventing transient pathogenic organisms from colonizing the skin surface, either by competing for nutrients, secreting chemicals against them, or stimulating the skin's immune system. However, resident microbes can cause skin diseases and enter the blood system, creating life-threatening diseases, particularly in immunosuppressed people. A major non-human skin flora is Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a chytrid and non-hyphal zoosporic fungus that causes chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease thought to be responsible for the decline in amphibian populations.
Views: 889 The Audiopedia
Microbiota changes after bariatric surgery
 
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In this presentation Fredrik Backhed explains that after a bariatric surgery, patients have a different microbiota that may improve their metabolisms.
Nicole King (UC Berkeley, HHMI) 2: Choanoflagellate colonies, bacterial signals and animal origins
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/ecology/choanoflagellates/#part-2 Talk Overview: Animals, plants, green algae, fungi and slime molds are all forms of multicellular life, yet each evolved multicellularity independently. How did animals evolve from their single-celled ancestors? King addresses this question using a group of fascinating organisms called choanoflagellates. Choanoflagellates are the closest living relatives to animals; they are single-cell, flagellated, bacteria eating organisms found between fungi and animals on the phylogenetic tree of life. By sequencing the genomes of many choanoflagellate species, King and her colleagues have discovered that some genes required for multicellularity in animals, such as adhesion, signaling, and extracellular matrix genes, are found in choanoflagellates. This suggests that these genes may have evolved before the transition to multicellularity in animals. The choanoflagellate S. rosetta can exist as a unicellular organism or it can switch to form multicellular colonies. In fact, its life cycle can be quite complex; it can form long chain colonies, spherical colonies called rosettes, or exist in different unicellular forms. In part 2 of her talk, King explains how she chose to use S. rosetta as a simple model for animal origins. After overcoming the technical difficulty of getting S. rosetta to form rosettes in the lab, she investigated how rosettes develop and how the cells within a rosette adhere to each other. She also asked the intriguing question “What regulates rosette development?”. It turns out that rosette formation is regulated by lipids produced by environmental bacteria that S. rosetta eat. This result adds to the growing interest in how bacteria may be influencing the behavior of diverse animals including humans. Speaker Biography: While fossils sparked Nicole King’s childhood interest in evolution, she realized that the fossil record doesn’t explain fully how animals first evolved from their single celled ancestors. To answer this question, King decided to study modern day choanoflagellates. Choanoflagellates are single celled organisms that can also develop in to multicellular assemblages. King first learned about choanoflagellates while she was a graduate student with Richard Losick at Harvard University. She moved to the University of Wisconsin-Madison to do a post-doctoral fellowship focusing on choanoflagellates. In 2003, King joined the faculty at the University of California, Berkeley. Currently, she is a Professor of Molecular and Cell Biology at Berkeley and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. King’s innovative studies have been recognized with a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship and a Pew Scholarship. King is also a Senior Fellow of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.
Views: 10803 iBiology
Streptococcus agalactiae - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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""Streptococcus agalactiae"" is a gram-positive cocci with a tendency to form chains, streptococcus, beta-hemolytic, catalase-negative, and facultative anaerobe. "Streptococcus agalactiae" is the species designation for streptococci belonging to the group B of the Rebecca Lancefield classification. GBS is encapsulated by a capsular exopolysacharide rich in sialic acid. GBS are subclassified into ten serotypes depending on the immunologic reactivity of their polysaccharide capsule. In general, GBS is a harmless commensal bacterium being part of the human microbiota colonizing the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract of up to 30% of healthy human adults. GBS grows readily on blood agar plates as colonies surrounded by a narrow zone of β-hemolysis. GBS is characterized by the presence in the cell wall of the antigen group B of Lancefield classification that can be detected directly in intact bacteria using latex agglutination tests. The CAMP test is also another important test for identification of GBS. The CAMP factor produced by GBS acts synergistically with the staphylococcal β-hemolysin inducing enhanced hemolysis of sheep or bovine erythrocytes. Hemolytic GBS strains produce an orange-brick-red polyenic pigment when cultivated on granada agar that allows its straightforward identification. GBS is an asymptomatic colonizer of the gastrointestinal human tract in otherwise healthy adults. Nevertheless, this opportunistic harmless bacteria can, in some circumstances, cause severe invasive infections. As other virulent bacteria GBS harbours an important number of virulence factors, the most important are the capsular polysaccharide and a pore forming toxin, β-hemolysin. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streptococcus+agalactiae, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
Views: 4408 Wiz Science™
Microbiome: When Good Bugs Go Bad — Yasmine Belkaid, NIH
 
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Read the story: http://irp.nih.gov/our-research/research-in-action/the-microbiome-when-good-bugs-go-bad Yasmine Belkaid, Ph.D., explores the fine balance that exists between microbes and their hosts. At the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Intramural Research Program (IRP), Dr. Belkaid is a Senior Investigator and Chief of the Mucosal Immunology Section in the Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Also, view a video featuring one of Dr. Belkaid's postdoctoral fellows: https://youtu.be/dceFwCJBRjA
Before the First Cup with Jules - Microbiome, Gut Flora & Mind Control 3-13-2015
 
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Time Cover Appears To Show 'Horns' On Hillary Clinton - http://youtu.be/9Pju18nNhVs Behind the Woodshed with Hal Anthony - https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLL_ETvimlrcDuAaGGNakslIQVXxcCMeNx Mental Health May Depend on Creatures in the Gut - http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/mental-health-may-depend-on-creatures-in-the-gut Do Cats Control My Mind? - http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/12/do-cats-control-my-mind/282045/ Fecal bacteriotherapy - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fecal_bacteriotherapy One Day, Scientists May Be Able To Erase Negative Memories In Your Brain While You Sleep - http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/03/11/scientists-manipulate-memories_n_6839530.html UCY.TV is an investigative media platform, designed to give YOU a voice on the platform of your choice: Video, live radio, podcasts, written articles and more. UCY.TV's website offers visitors top-notch ORIGINAL alternative news from reputable journalists, investigative field reporters, insightful radio broadcasts, LIVE video streams, exclusive interviews, archives and an intelligent forum. To learn more about how to become a part of UCY and lend your voice to the growing alternative media movement, email: [email protected] Real news, for the people, by the people.
Views: 63 UCYTV
Interview with Karen Edelblum: The Role of 'Leaky Gut' in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
 
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Dr. Karen Edelblum recently moved from her position at The University of Chicago to Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, where she is now Assistant Professor of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine at the Center for Immunity and Inflammation. She aims to find new treatments for inflammatory bowel disease by focusing on how gamma delta T cell/epithelial interactions shape innate immune responses to pathogenic and commensal bacteria. Dr. Edelblum gave a talk at Experimental Biology 2015 called, "Communication Between Tight Junction Proteins and Immune Cells During Enteric Disease". Interview by Kristina Campbell for GutMicrobiotaforHealth.com
What Is Malassezia Yeast?
 
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Healing skin by altering it's ph & microbial (malassezia) profile malassezia furfur microbewiki. Learn how to identify, diagnose, and treat malassezia dermatitis in dogs. In occasional opportunistic infections, some species can cause hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation on the trunk and other locations in humans skin conditions caused aggravated by infection malassezia include pityriasis versicolor most often due to subspecies msympodialis mmalassezia folliculitis yeast growing hair follicles where they produce inflammation 8 jan 2015 yeasts have been found human dandruff, deep sea vents, pretty much everywhere between. It is spherical (coccal) in shape 27 feb 2014 malassezia species are lipophilic yeasts that members of the normal mycobiota skin and mucosal sites a variety homeothermic veterinary article on (yeast) dermatitis by judy seltzer, bvetmed, mrcvs, dacvd. Sep 2001 malassezia (yeast) dermatitis can result in a primary skin problem or be present secondary to underlying disease jul 2006 are lipophilic yeasts that normal commensals on the surface. This is a free 50 page guide! enjoy 21 may 2017. In a lab environment olive oil is used to enhance the growth of 22 jul 2013 malassezia furfur fungus, specifically yeast, that approximately 1. Malassezia wikipedia en. Malassezia dermatitis is it complicating your life? Dvm360. Googleusercontent searchmalassezia (formerly known as pityrosporum) is a genus of fungi. Malassezia yeasts how many species infect humans and animals? . Veterinary article malassezia (yeast) dermatitis by judy seltzer skin yeasts may be related to problemssciencedirect topicsmalassezia in dogs and cats information sheet. Malassezia infections of the skin therapy letter. Vmcli is a long island emergency and specialty services 12 dec 2013 earlier research has suggested that colonization with common yeasts such as candida or saccharomyces in the skin digestive tract are malassezia. Though a normal inhabitant of these regions, an abnormal overgrowth the yeast can cause dermatitis, or inflammation skin 21 jun 2012 malassezia is monophyletic genus fungi found on 7 billion yet third fungal pathogen animal batrachochytrium 8 jan 2015 comprises lipid dependent and lipophilic species that are part microbiota [1]. Wikipedia wiki malassezia "imx0m" url? Q webcache. Most of the problems caused by malassezia yeasts are though part normal skin flora they may also cause or exacerbate several diseases. The 14 everything you need to know about how treat malassezia folliculitis (fungal acne) & related conditions. Malassezia furfur is a yeast present in the normal microflora of human skin, which can act as an allergen that incites specific ige reactivity and t cell malassezia. Malassezia is naturally found on the skin surfaces of many animals, including humans. The genus now includes 14 species what is malassezia? Malassezia are of yeast that colonise the surface layers skin in healthy dogs and cats. Fungal infection (malassezia pachydermati
Views: 31 E Answers
How Many Species Of Staphylococcus Are There?
 
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When stained, it will be seen in small clusters (staphylo cluster). Mega base pairs long with approximately 2,600 open reading frames, comprising 84. There are only a few species of staphylococcus that positive for the coagulase test (see table below), and s. Wikipedia wiki staphylococcus "imx0m" url? Q webcache. Epidermidis, which is considered to be a universal colonizer and part of pan microbiota. The aerobic catalase positive gram cocci present many taxonomic problems which must be resolved before a stable system of nomenclature can 12 nov 2014 they are opportunistic pathogens lack the virulence factors associated with sthere more than 30 species cons. Several manual and automated methods based on phenotypic characteristics have been developed for the identification of staphylococci (12, 24). Aureus is the most common. Staphylococcus medical microbiology ncbi bookshelfstaphylococcus bookshelf. The term staphylococcus, generally used for all the species, refers to cells'. The boundaries of the species, whereby m sort them, are made by men. The characterization of the subdivisions is presented in a quantitative way. Distribution of staphylococcus species among human clinical identification a variety by matrix microbewiki. The coagulase negative staphylococci (cns) are now known to comprise over 30 other species. Among these there are some salient peculiarities. Biochemical characteristics of staphylococcus species human not all aureus strains are equally pathogenic distribution coagulase positive staphylococci in humans and a new silver. In fact, these different species can swap genes distribution in healthy hosts. Not only salt resistant, staphylococcus is always facultatively anaerobic. Human isolates 17 jul 2009 one of the important open questions in staphylococcal biology is whether molecular determinants for infection and colonization are shared or separate. Staphylococci colonizers and pathogens of human skin medscape. Staphylococcus list of prokaryotic names with standing in. The cns are common commensals of skin, although some species can cause infections s. Differences were observed between strains within a species from the same source and different sources. Identification of staphylococcus species, micrococcus species and an overview 22a identification biology libretexts. Staphylococcus medical microbiology ncbi bookshelf staphylococcus wikipedia en. The taxonomy of these coagulase negative staphylococci (cons) fall into clusters based on 16s rrna sequences18saprophyticus are the there at least 30 other species staphylococci, all which lack this enzyme. Unfortunately, these systems have their limitations, mostly due to phenotypic differences between strains from the same species (6, 10, 19, 21). Biochemically, a principle difference between the two 21 apr 2016 run coagulase test there is linked exercise for this. Larlettae, of arlette; Named for arlette van de kerckhove, who has studied this and related species many years. Differe
Views: 5 new sparky
Archaea
 
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Views: 0 Trivia