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Strain aneuploidy underlies fluconazole resistance in human cryptococcal meningitis
 
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Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is an opportunistic fungal infection that primarily affects immunocompromised individuals, particularly those with HIV/AIDS. In resource-limited countries, patients often receive antifungal drug fluconazole monotherapy; however, long-term outcomes, even at high doses, are poor. In this episode, Neil Stone and colleagues observed treatment response in a cohort of patients with HIV-associated CM given fluconazole alone or in combination with flucytosine. Patients treated with fluconazole monotherapy had an increase in resistant subpopulations in the CSF; however, combination prevented expansion of resistant populations. Fluconazole-resistant strains had high rates of aneuploidy characterized predominant diploidy of drug efflux pump-containing chromosome 1. Together, these results support combination therapy as a successful strategy for suppressing heteroresistance.
Does Cryptococcus neoformans cause foliculitus? What fungus does cause foliculitus and ear infection
 
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Mastered ultra instink Goku its difficult but not imposible, this information is not correct in this video. I was told i had scabies and i had no idea this is a fungus. Cryptococcus is a genus of fungi, which grow in culture as yeasts. The sexual forms or teleomorphs of Cryptococcus species are filamentous fungi in the genus Filobasidiella. Wikipedia Scientific name: Cryptococcus Higher classification: Tremellaceae Rank: Genus The major species of Cryptococcus that causes illness in human is Cryptococcus neoformans Pityrosporum folliculitis, also known as Malassezia folliculitis, is a condition that causesbreakouts on your skin. This condition is considered common. It happens when yeastbacteria, which naturally occur on your skin, get under your skin and into your hair follicles Select LanguageAfrikaansAlbanianAmharicArabicArmenianAzerbaijaniBasqueBelarusianBengaliBosnianBulgarianCatalanCebuanoChichewaChinese (Simplified)Chinese (Traditional)CorsicanCroatianCzechDanishDutchEsperantoEstonianFilipinoFinnishFrenchFrisianGalicianGeorgianGermanGreekGujaratiHaitian CreoleHausaHawaiianHebrewHindiHmongHungarianIcelandicIgboIndonesianIrishItalianJapaneseJavaneseKannadaKazakhKhmerKoreanKurdish (Kurmanji)KyrgyzLaoLatinLatvianLithuanianLuxembourgishMacedonianMalagasyMalayMalayalamMalteseMaoriMarathiMongolianMyanmar (Burmese)NepaliNorwegianPashtoPersianPolishPortuguesePunjabiRomanianRussianSamoanScots GaelicSerbianSesothoShonaSindhiSinhalaSlovakSlovenianSomaliSpanishSundaneseSwahiliSwedishTajikTamilTeluguThaiTurkishUkrainianUrduUzbekVietnameseWelshXhosaYiddishYorubaZulu   Powered by Translate DermNet NZHome Images TRANSLATE  SEARCH DERMNET  Home Images Topics A–Z Browse CME Quizzes About Donate Contact Jobs Home»Topics A–Z»Malassezia folliculitis Malassezia folliculitis Author: Dr Amanda Oakley, Dermatologist, Hamilton, New Zealand,1997. Updated by Dr Thomas Stewart, General Practitioner, Sydney, Australia, November 2017. What is malassezia folliculitis? Malassezia folliculitis, previously known as pityrosporum folliculitis, is an infection of hair follicles caused by lipophilic malassezia yeasts. There are multiple malassezia species, including furfur, globosa, sympodialis and restricta [1]. The yeast is a normal inhabitant of human skin and only causes disease under specific conditions [2]. WHAT ARE THE CONDITIONS IN A OTHERWISE HEALTHY PERSON????? Malassezia have been linked to a number of skin diseases including seborrhoeicdermatitis, folliculitis, confluent and reticulated papillomatosis and pityriasisversicolor [3]. Who gets malassezia folliculitis? Malassezia folliculitis is most commonly seen in adolescent and young adult males living in humid climates [3,4]. Other risk factors include: High sebum production [3,4]Hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating) [3,4]Occlusion from emollients and sunscreensAntibiotic use [5]Oral steroids such as prednisone (steroid acne)Immunosuppression [6].  How does malassezia folliculitis present? Malassezia folliculitis presents as small uniform itchy papules and pustules on the forehead, chin, neck, trunk and extensor aspect of the upper limbs. They may be itchy. How is malassezia folliculitis diagnosed? Clinical examination is usually sufficient for diagnosis. Laboratory investigations may be performed. Potassium hydroxide preparation of skin scrapings may reveal budding spores and hyphae [7].Other stains, including the May-Grunwald-Giema stain may also be helpful, but are less commonly used [1].Cultures are not routinely done, as malassezia species typically require special media for growth. Malassezia folliculitis may also be suspected by finding organisms within the hairfollicles on histopathological examination of a skin biopsy. Treatment of malassezia folliculitis It is important to address any predisposing factors at the outset, as malassezia folliculitis has a tendency to recur. Oral treatment is recommended, as it has proven much more effective than topical agent. Fluconazole is used more commonly than itraconazole due to its superior side effect profile [8]. Topical agents (eg, selenium sulfide shampoo, econazole solution) may also be used but should be reserved for those unable to tolerate oral treatment  [9,10]. Isotretinoin and photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been used with some success in small case series [8, 11,12]. Prevention of malassezia folliculitis Recurrence is common, even after successful treatment [10]. Long-term prophylaxis with topical agents may be considered in those at high-risk or with multiple recurrences.
Views: 41 Jason Meyer
Good Doctors, Good Trials: PredArt TB-IRIS clinical trial
 
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The Pred-rt study is coordinated by Dr Graeme Meintjes (University of Cape Town, South Africa) and conducted in an HIV-TB clinic in Khayelitsha, a community of 500,000 people on the outskirts of Cape Town with very high rates of TB and HIV. The PredART study aims to develop a treatment intervention to address the TB-IRIS complication in HIV-TB co-infected patients. When patients have both HIV and TB infections, treatments need to be combined. One of the most common complications in those patients is TB IRIS. As the successful start of HIV-treatment with antiretrovirals leads to a rapid reconstitution of the immune system, a strong inflammatory response to the tuberculosis and other infections may result. This can be life threatening or at the very least undermine patients confidence in their treatment. Currently there is no preventative strategy for TB IRIS, therefore the PredART study aims to test an intervention with prednisone, which – if successful – might influence international guidelines for the treatment of HIV-TB co-infection.
Views: 872 edctpmedia
#CerebralMalaria #Malaria #DAMS #Unplugged
 
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Dr Sumer Sethi & Dr Suria Kumar discussing radiological and diagnostic aspect of an important tropical problem called as cerebral malaria.
Stars in Global Health: Antifungal effects of sertraline in adults
 
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Adjunctive sertraline for the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. Cryptococcal meningitis has emerged as a frequent and deadly infection in AIDS patients. High mortality is compounded by the high cost, toxicity, and limited repertoire of available antifungals. Researchers at the Infectious Diseases Institute in Kampala, Uganda, will determine if adding the antidepressant sertraline to standard therapy will result in better treatment of cryptococcal meningitis. For more information visit http://www.grandchallenges.ca
Meningitis outbreak linked to Mass.
 
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A pharmacy in Massachusetts is under the microscope this morning after being linked to a deadly outbreak of meningitis.
Views: 373 WWLP-22News
The fungal steering system: a route to infection
 
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The fungus, Candida albicans, lives as a harmless yeast in the human gut, where its growth is kept in check by the immune system. If immunity becomes suppressed, for example in transplant patients, C. albicans changes shape to produce long filaments called hyphae, which burrow down into internal tissues and cause fatal infections. To find their way through tissue, hyphae grow and steer by sensing and responding to the conditions around them. It is important for us to understand this sensing and responding process because, if we can find a way to disrupt it, the fungus can no longer invade and is less able to escape from the immune system or treatment with antifungal drugs.
Invasive Fungal Infections
 
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Invasive Fungal Infections
Views: 14 INSIGHT TV BLOG
Mycetoma
 
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Mycetoma
Views: 6973 Melodie Hillhouse
Confirmed Meningitis Death in North Carolina
 
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The state health director has confirmed a Davidson County resident died Friday from complications caused by meningitis. As of Sunday, there were 284 cases of meningitis caused by a recent outbreak, including twenty three deaths. There is one other confirmed case of meningitis in North Carolina but that patient has already been released from the hospital.
Views: 19 WLOS News 13
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
 
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Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is a condition seen in some cases of AIDS or immunosuppression, in which the immune system begins to recover, but then responds to a previously acquired opportunistic infection with an overwhelming inflammatory response that paradoxically makes the symptoms of infection worse. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 1077 Audiopedia
Fungal Infection in Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient
 
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Developed and produced for http://www.MechanismsinMedicine.com Animation Description: Recipients of bone marrow transplants are at particularly high risk for developing fungal infections. Watch this animation to find out why.
Histopathology Brain--Arteriovenous malformation
 
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Histopathology Brain--Arteriovenous malformation
Views: 10998 WashingtonDeceit
Overview of Fungal Rhinosinusitis – Prof A Chakrabarti
 
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In this presentation, "Fungal Rhinosinusitis: Snapshot", Professor Arunaloke Chakrabarti provides an overview of the various fungal diseases in the nose and paranasal sinuses. Competency of the immune system partly determines the severity of the condition, and antifungal therapy is required for invasive varieties. Professor Chakrabarti is head of the Department of Medical Microbiology of the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER) in Chandigarh, India, where he is also in charge of the Center of Advance Research in Medical Mycology, WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research of Fungi of Medical Importance, and the National Culture Collection of Pathogenic Fungi. He is president-elect of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM), and co-chair of the Asia Fungal Working Group (AFWG). Relevant links: Fungal Asthma http://bit.ly/2rH4S2a Influencing Aspergillus http://bit.ly/2sJcrUj
Charité Clinical Journal Club by Fred Luft - 17.2.2016
 
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The N Engl J Med image of the week shows a tongue at different stages of the condition. Notably, no complaints are mentioned by the patient (perhaps there were none). Geographic tonuge, oral candidiasis, lichen planus, hairy leukoplakia and pemphigus vulgaris are in the differential diagnosis. We review these tongue conditions. Caplacizumab, an anti–von Willebrand-factor humanized single-variable-domain immunoglobulin (nanobody), inhibits the interaction between ultralarge von Willebrand factor multimers and platelets. In a phase 2, controlled study, investigators randomly assigned patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura to subcutaneous caplacizumab (10 mg daily) or placebo during plasma exchange and for 30 days afterward. The primary endpoint was the time to a response, defined as confirmed normalization of the platelet count. Major secondary endpoints included exacerbations and relapses. The findings serve to elucidate thrombotic microangiopathy and could help those patients with deficiency of ADAMTS13. All say that the burden of dementia in old people is getting worse. Epidemiologists have addresed the issue. Participants in the Framingham Heart Study have been under surveillance for incident dementia since 1975. In this analysis, which included 5205 persons 60 years of age or older, epidemiologists used Cox proportional-hazards models adjusted for age and sex to determine the 5-year incidence of dementia during each of four epochs. They also explored the interactions between epoch and age, sex, apolipoprotein E ε4 status, and educational level. They examined the effects of these interactions, as well as the effects of vascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease, on temporal trends. The investigators found that oldsters are not becoming demented at the expected rate. Instead, the incidence of dementia seems to be decreasing. A new pacemaker technology is on the horizon. The Micra transcatheter pacing system, a leadless right ventricular pacemaker, was successfully implanted in 99.2% of 725 patients in whom implantation was attempted. The device met prespecified criteria for pacing capture threshold in 98.3% of the patients who were followed for 6 months. This follow-up study confirms the utility of the device. HIV-associated Cryptococal meningitis is generally treated with antimycotic drugs and corticosteroids so that the consequences of brain-stem inflammatory damage can be minimized. Data from TB patients support this strategy. We inspect a doubleblind trial testing corticosteroids against plebo in patients with Cryptococcal meningitis. Steroids did not help; as a matter of fact, the trial was stopped because the treatment made the disease worse. Antigen-driven selection has been implicated in the pathogenesis of monoclonal gammopathies. Gaucher’s disease is assoictated with the development of multiple myleomoa. An interesting paper suggests that long-term immune activation by lysolipids may underlie both Gaucher’s disease–associated gammopathies and some sporadic monoclonal gammopathies. The N Engl J Med review deals with urinary tract infection in elderly men. The case of the week is a woman with a cutaneous ulcer, lympadenopathy, and fever. She had spent much time out of doors in the woods of New England. Lancet investigators tested the effectiveness of the probiotic, Bifidobacterium breve BBG-001, to reduce necrotising enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, and death in preterm infants. However, the strategy was a failure. The efficacy of hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea) in preventing stroke in sickle-cell anemia patients is unknown. Hydroxyurea as effective as transfusions. Treatment strategies in children with dermatomyositis have not been rigorously tested. A study suggests that combined treatment with prednisone and either ciclosporin or methotrexate at disease onset is more effective than prednisone alone. Finally, investigators assessed the safety and efficacy of the long-acting GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide, in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Liraglutide was safe, well tolerated, and led to histological resolution. We conclude with histiocytes in urine and subsequent systemic disease.
Encephalitis
 
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Encephalitis (from Ancient Greek ἐγκέφαλος, enképhalos “brain”, composed of ἐν, en, “in” and κεφαλή, kephalé, “head”, and the medical suffix -itis “inflammation”) is an acute inflammation of the brain. Encephalitis with meningitis is known as meningoencephalitis. Symptoms include headache, fever, confusion, drowsiness, and fatigue. More advanced and serious symptoms include seizures or convulsions, tremors, hallucinations, and memory problems. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 5267 Audiopedia
My Mum has been in ICU for three weeks now and she is on ECMO for ARDS! Will she SURVIVE?(PART 5)
 
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http://intensivecarehotline.com/my-mum-has-been-in-icu-for-three-weeks-now-and-she-is-on-ecmo-for-ards-will-she-survive-part-5/ My Mum has been in ICU for three weeks now and she is on ECMO for ARDS! Will she SURVIVE?(PART 5)
Views: 30 Patrik Hutzel
The Ebola Outbreak of 2014-2015: A Perfect Storm
 
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Presentation by Anthony S. Fauci, MD, Director, NIAID/NIH, Bethesda, MD, at the ASM Biodefense 2015 Meeting in Washington, D.C. on Feb 11, 2015.
Meningitis Attorney -- Rhode Island, Massachusetts, United States
 
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Meningitis Attorney http://klandrylaw.com/blog/category/meningitis-attorney/ Over 14,000 patients are thought to have been injected with the contaminated injections and the Massachusetts meningitis lawyer cautions all who have received injections int he past few months to be on the lookout for potential symptoms. Symptoms present with severe headache, high fever, nausea, a stiff neck as well as sensitivity to light and sound. Although meningitis is not contagious, quick and accurate treatment is absolutely necessary for a proper resolution of the illness. The New England Compounding Center is most certainly liable for the still evolving damage it has caused to patient lives and has acted irresponsibly in the way in which it has handled this unprecedented meningitis outbreak. Physicians and/or hospital which may have misdiagnosed or mistreated patients can be held liable as well. If you have been infected or know someone who has been infected with meningitis, seek medical treatment immediately. Soon thereafter it's a wise decision to contact a Massachusetts meningitis attorney familiar with all types of medical malpractice can assist you with your claim should you choose to pursue one. Call our offices at 1-800-200-7752 for free consultation http://klandrylaw.com/blog/category/meningitis-attorney/
23. AIDS (II)
 
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Epidemics in Western Society Since 1600 (HIST 234) Dr. Margaret Craven discusses HIV/AIDS from the perspective of a front-line clinician. AIDS is unprecedented in both the speed with which it spread across the globe and in the mobilization of efforts to control it. It is a disease of modernity. Along with the relative ease and velocity of modern transportation methods, other background conditions include Western medicine, with hypodermic needles and bloodbanking, intravenous drug use, and the development and concentration of gay culture. In the U.S., early public health attempts at understanding and combating the virus were hindered by right-wing domestic political and religious forces. Successful containment of epidemics cannot be achieved under the spell of hypocrisy and politicization; rather, medicine and education must be evidence-based and practical. 00:00 - Chapter 1. Dr. Margaret Craven Discusses AIDS 07:42 - Chapter 2. Beginnings of the Epidemic: Globalization 12:53 - Chapter 3. Modern Invasive Medical Technology 14:54 - Chapter 4. Homosexuality 20:36 - Chapter 5. Uncovering the Medical Basis 28:51 - Chapter 6. Treatment 33:26 - Chapter 7. Public Health Challenges 44:10 - Chapter 8. Future Directions Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://open.yale.edu/courses This course was recorded in Spring 2010.
Views: 14288 YaleCourses
22. AIDS (I)
 
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Epidemics in Western Society Since 1600 (HIST 234) The global AIDS pandemic furnishes a case study for many of the themes addressed throughout the course. While in the developed West the disease largely afflicts concentrated high-risk groups such as intravenous drug users and the sexually promiscuous, in Southern Africa it is much more a generalized disease of poverty. In countries such as Botswana and Swaziland, the economic and social consequences of the disease have created a vicious circle, whereby the devastation wrought by AIDS severely impedes public health efforts and prepares the way for further infection. One important lesson that has been drawn from the past decades of struggle against the epidemic is therefore to take account of the specific, local characteristics of each affected area, making provision for the social as well as purely biological factors of transmission. 00:00 - Chapter 1. AIDS: Background 09:06 - Chapter 2. Transmission 12:55 - Chapter 3. Scale of the Pandemic 20:09 - Chapter 4. Epidemiology 33:14 - Chapter 5. Societal Effects 38:59 - Chapter 6. Public Health Strategies Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://open.yale.edu/courses This course was recorded in Spring 2010.
Views: 7379 YaleCourses
What Causes Chronic Osteomyelitis?
 
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Acute osteomyelitis comes on quickly, is easier to treat, and overall turns out better than chronic 19 jan 2017 symptoms, causes, treatment. Diagnosis and management of osteomyelitis american family chronic practice notebook. 21 jan 2017 osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone, a rare but serious condition. It can happen if a bacterial or fungal infection enters the bone tissue from bloodstream, due to injury surgery. Also, once intracellular, the bacteria are able to surgery is usually needed if infection becomes severe or persistent. Further classification aka chronic osteomyelitis, subacute osteomyelitis in adults presentation may be delayed 6 weeks or more after symptom onset; Localized common symptoms are localized bone pain and tenderness with constitutional (in acute osteomyelitis) without. Osteomyelitis musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders. If left untreated, the infection can become chronic and cause a loss of blood supply to affected osteomyelitis usually occurs after an acute episode when has not been totally 1 nov 2011 necrotic bone is present in osteomyelitis, symptoms may occur until six weeks onset. Many different types of germs (bacteria) can cause osteomyelitis. The outlook is worse for those with long term (chronic) osteomyelitis 6 apr 2012 treatment refractory acute infectious complications were the most frequent cause of chronic in developed countries (18) lack oxygen and nutrients bone tissue to die, which leads. Dead bone with no blood once chronic osteomyelitis is established, the person affected may have periods of almost symptoms. Osteomyelitis symptoms, causes, and treatment osteomyelitis treatment webmd osteomyeltis diagnosis symptoms url? Q webcache. Other possible complications include blood poisoning and 25 sep 2015 osteomyelitis comprehensive overview covers symptoms, causes, treatment of chronic acute bone infections affects about two out every 10,000 people. Osteomyelitis facts on guidelines and treatment medicinenet. However, symptoms can flare up at any time osteomyelitis (om) is an infection of bone. This disease may result from the following inadequate treatment of acute osteomyelitis 13 jul 2017 a bone infection, also called osteomyelitis, can when bacteria or fungi severe injury, deep cut, wound cause infections in cases chronic abscesses block blood supply to bone, which will eventually die. Symptom may include pain in a specific bone with chronic osteomyelitis be due to the presence of intracellular bacteria (inside cells). Googleusercontent search. Osteomyelitis is an infection and inflammation of the bone or marrow. Around 80 percent of cases develop because an open wound over a bone can lead to osteomyelitis. Chronic osteomyelitis imaging overview, radiography, computed bone infection (osteomyelitis) symptoms and treatments healthlineosteomyelitis nhs choicesbone infectionchronic dovemedtreatment algorithms for chronic ncbi nihosteomyelitis mayo clinic. In most cases, a bacteria called s
Views: 71 Burning Question
Cocaine induced MI USMLE STEP2CK concept
 
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Cocaine Induced MI USMLE STEP 2CK USMLE UWORLD CONCEPT EXPLAINED
Views: 941 Medicine Simplified
Charité Clinical Journal Club by Fred Luft - 3.6.2015
 
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The N Engl J Med image of the week shows a young woman with a generalized morbilliform eruption over her entire body; the chest is most prominent. She wears eye protection because of photophobia. You are offered polymorphous light eruption, Dengue fever, measles, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and acute cutaneous lupus erythematosis. Herpes Zoster is a reactivation of varicella virus that plagues older adults and immunosuppressed persons, although zoster can appear at almost any age. A vaccine is available. We inspect a better vaccine based on expression of the virus glycoprotein E recombinantly. The vaccine in two doses of HZ/su administered 2 months apart had a vaccine efficacy of 97.2%, as compared with placebo, in reducing the risk of herpes zoster in adults 50 years of age or older. Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division, which reduces the chromosome number by half. The process is crucial to species survival and is thus carefully genetically regulated. The genetic basis of nonobstructive azoospermia is unknown in the majority of infertile men; meiosis regulators could play a role. Investigators performed array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in blood samples obtained from patients with azoospermia and mutation screening by means of direct Sanger sequencing of the testis-expressed 11 (TEX11) gene open reading frame in patients with azoospermia and controls. TEX11 mutations occurred in infertile men with meiotic arrest. The finding is important for the diagnosis of azoospermia and meiotic arrest. It is also important for preconception testing in men who are partners of women undergoing in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, or both. Financial incentives promote many health behaviors, but effective ways to deliver health incentives remain uncertain. Psychologists randomly assigned CVS Caremark employees and their relatives and friends to one of four incentive programs or to usual care for smoking cessation. Would you believe that paying people to stop smoking is successful? Anything can be had for money! The natural history of tuberculosis begins with the inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms; a period of bacterial replication and dissemination ensues, followed by immunologic containment of viable bacilli. This state-of-affairs is called latent tuberculosis and almost everyone in my generation has it. The chances of developing clinical tuberculosis at a later timepoint is 5-15%, N Engl J Med reviews this important topic. The N Engl J Med case is a middle-aged nonsmoking woman with non-small-cell lung cancer. She develops intractable pain. Her terminal treatment is termed “palliative sedation”. The distinction between this approach and assisted suicide is discussed. Inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein has been shown to reduce LDL-C concentrations in addition to regular statin treatment in patients with hypercholesterolaemia or at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Inhibitors thus far have not prolonged life of persons at risk from cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, in the Lancet we review a paper on a CETP inhibitor in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. In the fetus, the ductus venosus shunts a portion of the left umbilical vein blood flow directly to the inferior vena cava. Thus, the ductus-venosus shunt allows oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the liver. Increased impedance to flow in the fetal ductus venosus at 11-13 weeks’-gestation is associated with fetal aneuploidies, cardiac defects and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. No consensus exists for the best way to monitor and when to trigger delivery in mothers of babies with fetal growth restriction. Lancet investigators aimed to assess whether or not changes in the fetal ductus venosus Doppler waveform could be used as indications for delivery instead of cardiotocography short-term variation (STV). Unfortunately, the results do not inspire confidence. Mortality in people in Africa with HIV infection starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is high, particularly in those with advanced disease, commonly complicated by cryptococcal meningitis, a treatable fungal meningeal disease. Therefore, investigators assessed the effect of a short period of community support to supplement clinic-based services combined with serum cryptococcal antigen screening. Just four short home visits by lay workers to provide adherence support combined with screening for cryptococcal meningitis led to a significant reduction in mortality in patients infected with HIV starting ART with advanced disease. The brachial plexus is a network of nerves, running from the spine, formed by the anterior rami of the lower four cervical nerves and first thoracic nerve (C5–C8, T1). Brachial plexus injuries can permanently impair hand function, yet present surgical reconstruction provides only poor results.
Overview of HIV/AIDS
 
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Dr. Joanne Orrick
Views: 17 Linda James
#49 Intro to CSF analysis
 
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It may look like water, but CSF is anything but. In this week's episode of BrainWaves, we discuss the contents of CSF and how to interpret them. BrainWaves podcasts and online content are intended for medical education only and should not be used to guide medical decision making in routine clinical practice. REFERENCES 1. Frederiks JA and Koehler PJ. The first lumbar puncture. J Hist Neurosci. 1997;6:147-53. 2. Seehusen DA, Reeves MM and Fomin DA. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Am Fam Physician. 2003;68:1103-8. 3. Shah KH and Edlow JA. Distinguishing traumatic lumbar puncture from true subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Emerg Med. 2002;23:67-74. 4. Deisenhammer F, Bartos A, Egg R, Gilhus NE, Giovannoni G, Rauer S, Sellebjerg F and Force ET. Guidelines on routine cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Report from an EFNS task force. European journal of neurology : the official journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies. 2006;13:913-22. 5. Nagel MA, Cohrs RJ, Mahalingam R, Wellish MC, Forghani B, Schiller A, Safdieh JE, Kamenkovich E, Ostrow LW, Levy M, Greenberg B, Russman AN, Katzan I, Gardner CJ, Hausler M, Nau R, Saraya T, Wada H, Goto H, de Martino M, Ueno M, Brown WD, Terborg C and Gilden DH. The varicella zoster virus vasculopathies: clinical, CSF, imaging, and virologic features. Neurology. 2008;70:853-60. 6. Messacar K, Schreiner TL, Van Haren K, Yang M, Glaser CA, Tyler KL and Dominguez SR. Acute flaccid myelitis: A clinical review of US cases 2012-2015. Annals of neurology. 2016;80:326-38.
Views: 41 BrainWaves Staff
Ryan White HIV/AIDS: 25 Years of Passion, Purpose and Excellence
 
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This video highlights 25 years of passion, purpose, and excellence in the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.
Views: 2282 HRSAtube
Biofilms | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofilm 00:02:07 1 Formation 00:04:05 2 Development 00:04:34 3 Dispersal 00:06:14 4 Properties 00:07:06 4.1 Extracellular matrix 00:09:31 5 Habitats 00:12:50 5.1 Dental plaque 00:16:19 6 Taxonomic diversity 00:17:43 7 Infectious diseases 00:20:36 7.1 iPseudomonas aeruginosa/i 00:21:32 7.2 iStreptococcus pneumoniae/i 00:22:58 8 Uses and impact 00:23:07 8.1 In medicine 00:24:11 8.2 In industry 00:25:38 8.3 Food industry 00:28:14 8.4 In aquaculture 00:29:15 9 Eukaryotic biofilms 00:30:42 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9530228488758902 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A biofilm comprises any syntrophic consortium of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface. These adherent cells become embedded within a slimy extracellular matrix that is composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The cells within the biofilm produce the EPS components, which are typically a polymeric conglomeration of extracellular polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and DNA. Because they have three-dimensional structure and represent a community lifestyle for microorganisms, they have been metaphorically described as "cities for microbes".Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. Biofilms can form on the teeth of most animals as dental plaque, where they may cause tooth decay and gum disease. Microbes form a biofilm in response to various different factors, which may include cellular recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites on a surface, nutritional cues, or in some cases, by exposure of planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. A cell that switches to the biofilm mode of growth undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated.A biofilm may also be considered a hydrogel, which is a complex polymer that contains many times its dry weight in water. Biofilms are not just bacterial slime layers but biological systems; the bacteria organize themselves into a coordinated functional community. Biofilms can attach to a surface such as a tooth, rock, or surface, and may include a single species or a diverse group of microorganisms. The biofilm bacteria can share nutrients and are sheltered from harmful factors in the environment, such as desiccation, antibiotics, and a host body's immune system. A biofilm usually begins to form when a free-swimming bacterium attaches to a surface.
Views: 16 wikipedia tts

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