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FUNGAL INFECTION:  Cryptococcal Meningitis Causes Symptoms and Treatment..
 
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Click Here: https://goo.gl/5CNZJP Click Here : http://ouo.io/t9Lb4y Hello folks. We will be discussing Cryptococcal Meningitis today. It is a brain infection caused by a fungus named Cryptococcus neoformans. Also termed C. neoformans or C. gattii. Cryptococcus first affects the lungs and then grows towards the brain causing Cryptococcal Meningitis. It primarily targets the Central Nervous System (Spinal Cord and Brain). But it does not affect ordinarily healthy people. It is more prevalent in patients with lower immunity like HIV/AIDS. It is spread everywhere in the environment, but not harmful to people having ordinary to better immunity. Let's check this video for more info. fungal infections fungal skin infections fungal infections of the skin what causes fungal infections are fungal infections contagious types of fungal infections foot fungal infections how to treat fungal infections common fungal infections skin fungal infections fungal infections in humans types of fungal skin infections fungal infections on skin chronic fungal infections natural remedies for fungal infections superficial fungal infections Fungal Infections Home Remedies Best Home Remedies forFungal Infections Natural Home Remedies For Fungal Infections Ayurvedic Remedies for Fungal Infections Homemade Remedies for Fungal Infections Homemade Medicine for Fungal Infections Herbal Remedies For Fungal Infections There’re numerous fungal infections which have been recognised by the experts such as mycosis, candida, athlete’s foot & yeast infection. All the illness usually belongs to fungus. These types of disease are exceptionally general & anyone can comfortably get fungal malady. Different kinds of fungal ailments have different kinds of signs & symptoms. In 2014 fungal ailment is the 4th most general malady all over the planet considering the truth that in 2010 more than 96 million people get affected from fungal illness. Mycosis is a fungal ailment that affects human as well as animals too. This generally affects the people who has weaker immune system. Although, this doesn’t mean that who has powerful immune system can’t get fungal malady. Athlete’s foot is one of the general fungal ailments spreading day through day all over the world. This usually evolves on the feet, ankle, hair, nail and outer skin layer. The main common signs & indications of athlete’s foot are itching, burning, redness, blister and breakdown of skin. Candida could be also referred as fungal disease is one of the most common diseases around the planet. If you’re taking anti-biotic for a long time then the probabilities will enhance of the evolvement of fungal disease. There are many signs and indications exist that can be used to detect any kinds of fungal disease. generally the signs and symptoms occur with itchiness and burning. Soreness and rash are the other symptoms of fungal illness. There’re many therapy options exist for the therapy of Cold sore but not all of them are appropriate for the therapy of fungal disease. usually physicians recommend anti-fungal medicines to treat fungal ailment though these medicament might lead to certain side effects. So, it is extremely important to follow a remedy that has no even single side effects & that’s what home remedy for Fungal disease do. A Home remedy for fungal disease is the nicest remedy that a patient can admire. Although, there is medicines associated remedy exist though, you don’t have to follow medicaments linked remedy. Mostly fungal infection can be comfortably cuired through Home remedy for fungal ailment. You may apply tea tree oil as a cream that supports you to moisturize your lesion of fungal illness. Echinacea contains strong anti-fungal properties which assist you to erase fungal from your skin. Garlic is a powerful natural thing that has the sufficient potential to cure any varieties of fungal malady. Garlic carries holistic anti-septic elements that are requiring healing fungal ailment of the feet. If you want to cure fungal illness, you must have to follow olive oil to moisturize your lesion. Researchers have discovered that lavender carries powerful anti-fungal components that will assist you to treat fungal infection. All the above holistic treatments are totally based on home remedy for fungal disease. http://homeremedies9.com/
HIV and meningitis, a dangerous cocktail
 
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Views: 1003 NTVUganda
Neurological Complications of HIV
 
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» Help me 10.000 Subscribe, thanks, please: https://goo.gl/KZQvss Neurological Complications of HIV HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV weakens and slowly destroys the body’s immune system, leaving you vulnerable to life-threatening complications from an infection or certain cancers. As HIV and AIDS battle your immune system, your central nervous system is also affected. HIV and AIDS both cause a number of neurological complications, particularly if HIV progresses to AIDS. Today, antiretroviral medicines—when taken correctly and promptly—help to slow down the progression of HIV. They also help to delay the onset of or to decrease the risk of progression to AIDS. Controlling HIV can also reduce your risk for neurological complications of HIV. Facts about HIV/AIDS HIV is a virus that's sexually transmitted, but can also be passed from mother to baby and person to person by sharing a contaminated needle or through transfusion of contaminated blood. Untreated, the virus will continue to replicate in the body, becoming more and more advanced. Advanced HIV becomes AIDS. This often results in a number of neurological complications as the body becomes more damaged. HIV doesn't seem to take over the cells in your nervous system, but it does cause significant inflammation in the body. This inflammation can damage the spinal cord and brain and prevent your nerve cells from working the way that they should. Neurological complications may result not only from damage caused by the virus itself, but also from other side effects of HIV and AIDS, such as cancers that are associated with these diseases. Some of the drugs used to treat HIV and AIDS can also cause neurological complications while attempting to control the rapid spread of the virus. Certain genetic factors can influence the risk of neurological side effects from HIV medicines. Neurological complications don't usually set in until HIV is advanced, typically when someone has AIDS. About half of adults with AIDS suffer from neurological complications related to HIV. Types of neurological complications of HIV HIV can cause many different conditions that affect the nervous system: Dementia. When HIV becomes very advanced, HIV-associated dementia or AIDS dementia complex can occur. These disorders impair cognitive function. This means that you may have trouble thinking, understanding, and remembering. This type of dementia can be life-threatening. It can often be prevented when antiretroviral medicines are taken correctly. Viral infections. HIV can increase your risk for several viral infections that strike the nervous system. Cytomegalovirus infections can negatively affect cognitive function, physical control (like the use of legs and arms and bladder control), vision and hearing, and your respiratory system, causing problems like pneumonia. People with AIDS are also likely to develop a herpes virus infection, like shingles, inflammation in the brain, and inflammation, in the spinal cord. Another condition, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is also caused by a virus. PML is aggressive and dangerous. In some circumstances, it can be controlled with antiretroviral medicines. Fungal and parasitic infections. Cryptococcal meningitis is caused by a fungus and leads to serious inflammation of the spinal cord and brain. A parasite can cause an infection called toxoplasma encephalitis, which often leads to confusion, seizures, and extremely painful headaches. Both of these infections can be life-threatening. Neuropathy. HIV can cause damage to nerves throughout the body, resulting in significant pain or weakness, known as neuropathy. Neuropathy is most common in people with advanced HIV. Vacuolar myelopathy. This condition occurs when tiny holes develop in the fibers of the nerves of the spinal cord. It causes difficulty walking, particularly as the condition gets worse. It's common in people with AIDS who aren't receiving treatment and also in children with HIV. Psychological conditions. People with HIV or AIDS often develop anxiety disorders and suffer from depression. They may also experience hallucinations and significant changes in behavior. Lymphomas. Tumors called lymphomas often strike the brain of people with HIV. They're often related to another virus, similar to the herpes virus. Lymphomas can be life-threatening, but good management of HIV can make treating lymphomas more successful. ▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬ Thank you for watching! Wish you good health and happiness. Please like, share and subcribe to support us! Please Follow us: Subscribe: https://goo.gl/KZQvss Facebook: https://goo.gl/AN9oMu Google+:https://goo.gl/hcKhJw Twitter: https://twitter.com/DauBenh Gmail: [email protected]
Views: 1557 HIV AIDS
Good Doctors, Good Trials: PredArt TB-IRIS clinical trial
 
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The Pred-rt study is coordinated by Dr Graeme Meintjes (University of Cape Town, South Africa) and conducted in an HIV-TB clinic in Khayelitsha, a community of 500,000 people on the outskirts of Cape Town with very high rates of TB and HIV. The PredART study aims to develop a treatment intervention to address the TB-IRIS complication in HIV-TB co-infected patients. When patients have both HIV and TB infections, treatments need to be combined. One of the most common complications in those patients is TB IRIS. As the successful start of HIV-treatment with antiretrovirals leads to a rapid reconstitution of the immune system, a strong inflammatory response to the tuberculosis and other infections may result. This can be life threatening or at the very least undermine patients confidence in their treatment. Currently there is no preventative strategy for TB IRIS, therefore the PredART study aims to test an intervention with prednisone, which – if successful – might influence international guidelines for the treatment of HIV-TB co-infection.
Views: 686 edctpmedia
FUNGAL INFECTION: Causes and Symptoms of Sporotrichosis (Sporothrix Schenckii)..
 
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Click Here: https://goo.gl/5CNZJP Click Here : http://ouo.io/t9Lb4y Also called as Sporotrichosis, this fungal infection is caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenckii. This fungus is found worldwide in soil, plants, and decaying vegetation. It is caused mostly by handling contaminated plant material when the fungus enters the skin through a small cut or scrape. Cutaneous (skin) infection is most common while pulmonary infection happens when a person inhales the microscopic, airborne fungal spores, sporadic infections are related to minor cuts and scrapes, while outbreaks include handling contaminated vegetation such as moss, hay, or wood. fungal infections fungal skin infections fungal infections of the skin what causes fungal infections are fungal infections contagious types of fungal infections foot fungal infections how to treat fungal infections common fungal infections skin fungal infections fungal infections in humans types of fungal skin infections fungal infections on skin chronic fungal infections natural remedies for fungal infections superficial fungal infections Fungal Infections Home Remedies Best Home Remedies forFungal Infections Natural Home Remedies For Fungal Infections Ayurvedic Remedies for Fungal Infections Homemade Remedies for Fungal Infections Homemade Medicine for Fungal Infections Herbal Remedies For Fungal Infections There are certain fungal maladies that have been recognised through the scientists like mycosis, candida, athlete’s foot and yeast ailment. All the illness commonly belongs to fungus. These types of infection are very common & anyone can comfortably get fungal infection. Different kinds of fungal illnesses have different kinds of signs and symptoms. In 2014 fungal infection is the 4th most general malady all over the earth considering the truth that in 2010 more than 92 million human get affected from fungal disease. Mycosis is a fungal ailment that affects human as well as animals too. This generally affects the people who has weaker immunity. Though, this does not mean that who has strong immunity can’t evolve fungal infection. Athlete’s foot is one of the common fungal illnesses spreading day through day all over the plante. This usually evolves on the feet, ankle, hair, nail and outer skin layer. The main common signs and indications of athlete’s foot are itching, burning, redness, blister and breakdown of skin. Candida could be also referred as fungal malady is one of the very common diseases around the planet. If you’re pursuing anti-biotic for a long time then the possibilities will elevate of the development of fungal disease. There are many signs and indications exist that can be used to detect any types of fungal infection. generally the symptoms & indications occur with itchiness & burning. Soreness and rash are the other signs of fungal illness. There’re many therapy options accessible for the therapy of Cold sore Although not all of them are appropriate for the treatment of fungal infection. generally physicians recommend anti-fungal medicines to treat fungal disease but these medicines can lead to certain side effects. So, it is exceptionally important to follow a treatment that has no even single side effects and that’s what home remedy for Fungal illness do. A Home remedy for fungal infection is the nicest remedy which a patient can admire. Though, there is medicines associated remedy exist though, you don’t have to follow medicines associated remedy. Mostly fungal infection can be comfortably treated through Home remedy for fungal ailment. You can apply tea tree oil as a cream which supports you to moisturize your lesion of fungal ailment. Echinacea carries powerful anti-fungal components that assist you to treat fungal from your skin. Garlic is a strong holistic thing which has the adequate ability to cure any varieties of fungal infection. Garlic contains holistic anti-septic componetea that are requiring healing fungal illness of the feet. If you want to cure fungal illness, you must require to follow olive oil to moisturize your wound. Researchers have explored that lavender carries energetic anti-fungal components which will support you to cure fungal infection. All the above natural treatments are entirely based on home remedy for fungal disease. http://homeremedies9.com/
The fungal steering system: a route to infection
 
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The fungus, Candida albicans, lives as a harmless yeast in the human gut, where its growth is kept in check by the immune system. If immunity becomes suppressed, for example in transplant patients, C. albicans changes shape to produce long filaments called hyphae, which burrow down into internal tissues and cause fatal infections. To find their way through tissue, hyphae grow and steer by sensing and responding to the conditions around them. It is important for us to understand this sensing and responding process because, if we can find a way to disrupt it, the fungus can no longer invade and is less able to escape from the immune system or treatment with antifungal drugs.
Encephalitis
 
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Encephalitis (from Ancient Greek ἐγκέφαλος, enképhalos “brain”, composed of ἐν, en, “in” and κεφαλή, kephalé, “head”, and the medical suffix -itis “inflammation”) is an acute inflammation of the brain. Encephalitis with meningitis is known as meningoencephalitis. Symptoms include headache, fever, confusion, drowsiness, and fatigue. More advanced and serious symptoms include seizures or convulsions, tremors, hallucinations, and memory problems. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 4765 Audiopedia
Histopathology Brain--Arteriovenous malformation
 
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Histopathology Brain--Arteriovenous malformation
Views: 10806 WashingtonDeceit
Overview of HIV/AIDS
 
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Dr. Joanne Orrick
Views: 40 Linda James
The Role of Interferon in HIV Response
 
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Although interferon is on its way out as a standard of care for hepatitis C, researchers are learning more about its role in HIV, conference vice chair Julie Overbaugh said at a media briefing on the opening day of the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2014) this week in Boston....http://www.hivandhepatitis.com/hiv-aids/hiv-aids-topics/hiv-treatment/4540-croi-2014-the-role-of-interferon-in-hiv-response-video From the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections Boston, March 3, 2014
Views: 1179 HIVandHepatitis
What Causes Toxoplasmosis In Adults And Children?
 
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http://lifey.org/health What Causes Toxoplasmosis In Adults And Children? Some of the ways you can get Toxoplasmosis and it's accompanying symptoms.
Views: 193 Lifey Health
Histopathology Brain --Viral encephalitis
 
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Histopathology Brain --Viral encephalitis
Views: 22116 WashingtonDeceit
Charité Clinical Journal Club by Fred Luft - 17.2.2016
 
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The N Engl J Med image of the week shows a tongue at different stages of the condition. Notably, no complaints are mentioned by the patient (perhaps there were none). Geographic tonuge, oral candidiasis, lichen planus, hairy leukoplakia and pemphigus vulgaris are in the differential diagnosis. We review these tongue conditions. Caplacizumab, an anti–von Willebrand-factor humanized single-variable-domain immunoglobulin (nanobody), inhibits the interaction between ultralarge von Willebrand factor multimers and platelets. In a phase 2, controlled study, investigators randomly assigned patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura to subcutaneous caplacizumab (10 mg daily) or placebo during plasma exchange and for 30 days afterward. The primary endpoint was the time to a response, defined as confirmed normalization of the platelet count. Major secondary endpoints included exacerbations and relapses. The findings serve to elucidate thrombotic microangiopathy and could help those patients with deficiency of ADAMTS13. All say that the burden of dementia in old people is getting worse. Epidemiologists have addresed the issue. Participants in the Framingham Heart Study have been under surveillance for incident dementia since 1975. In this analysis, which included 5205 persons 60 years of age or older, epidemiologists used Cox proportional-hazards models adjusted for age and sex to determine the 5-year incidence of dementia during each of four epochs. They also explored the interactions between epoch and age, sex, apolipoprotein E ε4 status, and educational level. They examined the effects of these interactions, as well as the effects of vascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease, on temporal trends. The investigators found that oldsters are not becoming demented at the expected rate. Instead, the incidence of dementia seems to be decreasing. A new pacemaker technology is on the horizon. The Micra transcatheter pacing system, a leadless right ventricular pacemaker, was successfully implanted in 99.2% of 725 patients in whom implantation was attempted. The device met prespecified criteria for pacing capture threshold in 98.3% of the patients who were followed for 6 months. This follow-up study confirms the utility of the device. HIV-associated Cryptococal meningitis is generally treated with antimycotic drugs and corticosteroids so that the consequences of brain-stem inflammatory damage can be minimized. Data from TB patients support this strategy. We inspect a doubleblind trial testing corticosteroids against plebo in patients with Cryptococcal meningitis. Steroids did not help; as a matter of fact, the trial was stopped because the treatment made the disease worse. Antigen-driven selection has been implicated in the pathogenesis of monoclonal gammopathies. Gaucher’s disease is assoictated with the development of multiple myleomoa. An interesting paper suggests that long-term immune activation by lysolipids may underlie both Gaucher’s disease–associated gammopathies and some sporadic monoclonal gammopathies. The N Engl J Med review deals with urinary tract infection in elderly men. The case of the week is a woman with a cutaneous ulcer, lympadenopathy, and fever. She had spent much time out of doors in the woods of New England. Lancet investigators tested the effectiveness of the probiotic, Bifidobacterium breve BBG-001, to reduce necrotising enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, and death in preterm infants. However, the strategy was a failure. The efficacy of hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea) in preventing stroke in sickle-cell anemia patients is unknown. Hydroxyurea as effective as transfusions. Treatment strategies in children with dermatomyositis have not been rigorously tested. A study suggests that combined treatment with prednisone and either ciclosporin or methotrexate at disease onset is more effective than prednisone alone. Finally, investigators assessed the safety and efficacy of the long-acting GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide, in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Liraglutide was safe, well tolerated, and led to histological resolution. We conclude with histiocytes in urine and subsequent systemic disease.
23. AIDS (II)
 
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Epidemics in Western Society Since 1600 (HIST 234) Dr. Margaret Craven discusses HIV/AIDS from the perspective of a front-line clinician. AIDS is unprecedented in both the speed with which it spread across the globe and in the mobilization of efforts to control it. It is a disease of modernity. Along with the relative ease and velocity of modern transportation methods, other background conditions include Western medicine, with hypodermic needles and bloodbanking, intravenous drug use, and the development and concentration of gay culture. In the U.S., early public health attempts at understanding and combating the virus were hindered by right-wing domestic political and religious forces. Successful containment of epidemics cannot be achieved under the spell of hypocrisy and politicization; rather, medicine and education must be evidence-based and practical. 00:00 - Chapter 1. Dr. Margaret Craven Discusses AIDS 07:42 - Chapter 2. Beginnings of the Epidemic: Globalization 12:53 - Chapter 3. Modern Invasive Medical Technology 14:54 - Chapter 4. Homosexuality 20:36 - Chapter 5. Uncovering the Medical Basis 28:51 - Chapter 6. Treatment 33:26 - Chapter 7. Public Health Challenges 44:10 - Chapter 8. Future Directions Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://open.yale.edu/courses This course was recorded in Spring 2010.
Views: 14070 YaleCourses
Something Positive for Positive People - Episode 06 Herpes Meningitis
 
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Amy discusses her rare diagnosis of herpes meningitis. After battling for her life in the hospital as the doctors were ready to give up on her completely, she managed to cling to the goals she had set for herself which included starting a family as well as living the farm life. Amy educates us on what herpes meningitis is, while rare, more instances are coming up as of late.
22. AIDS (I)
 
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Epidemics in Western Society Since 1600 (HIST 234) The global AIDS pandemic furnishes a case study for many of the themes addressed throughout the course. While in the developed West the disease largely afflicts concentrated high-risk groups such as intravenous drug users and the sexually promiscuous, in Southern Africa it is much more a generalized disease of poverty. In countries such as Botswana and Swaziland, the economic and social consequences of the disease have created a vicious circle, whereby the devastation wrought by AIDS severely impedes public health efforts and prepares the way for further infection. One important lesson that has been drawn from the past decades of struggle against the epidemic is therefore to take account of the specific, local characteristics of each affected area, making provision for the social as well as purely biological factors of transmission. 00:00 - Chapter 1. AIDS: Background 09:06 - Chapter 2. Transmission 12:55 - Chapter 3. Scale of the Pandemic 20:09 - Chapter 4. Epidemiology 33:14 - Chapter 5. Societal Effects 38:59 - Chapter 6. Public Health Strategies Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://open.yale.edu/courses This course was recorded in Spring 2010.
Views: 7126 YaleCourses
2 Dead Rare Aspergillus Meningitis
 
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http://www.tennessean.com/article/20121001/NEWS07/310010063/2-die-meningitis-outbreak-Saint-Thomas-neurosurgery-clinic-shuts-down?odyssey=nav%7Chead http://hisz.rsoe.hu/alertmap/site/?pageid=event_desc&edis_id=BH-20121002-36728-USA "Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use." § 107.Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include — (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. FAIR USE NOTICE: These pages/video may contain copyrighted (© ) material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. Such material is made available to advance understanding of ecological, POLITICAL, HUMAN RIGHTS, economic, DEMOCRACY, scientific, MORAL, ETHICAL, and SOCIAL JUSTICE ISSUES, etc. It is believed that this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, this material is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior general interest in receiving similar information for research and educational
Views: 179 63rfilos
Charité Clinical Journal Club by Fred Luft - 3.6.2015
 
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The N Engl J Med image of the week shows a young woman with a generalized morbilliform eruption over her entire body; the chest is most prominent. She wears eye protection because of photophobia. You are offered polymorphous light eruption, Dengue fever, measles, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and acute cutaneous lupus erythematosis. Herpes Zoster is a reactivation of varicella virus that plagues older adults and immunosuppressed persons, although zoster can appear at almost any age. A vaccine is available. We inspect a better vaccine based on expression of the virus glycoprotein E recombinantly. The vaccine in two doses of HZ/su administered 2 months apart had a vaccine efficacy of 97.2%, as compared with placebo, in reducing the risk of herpes zoster in adults 50 years of age or older. Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division, which reduces the chromosome number by half. The process is crucial to species survival and is thus carefully genetically regulated. The genetic basis of nonobstructive azoospermia is unknown in the majority of infertile men; meiosis regulators could play a role. Investigators performed array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in blood samples obtained from patients with azoospermia and mutation screening by means of direct Sanger sequencing of the testis-expressed 11 (TEX11) gene open reading frame in patients with azoospermia and controls. TEX11 mutations occurred in infertile men with meiotic arrest. The finding is important for the diagnosis of azoospermia and meiotic arrest. It is also important for preconception testing in men who are partners of women undergoing in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, or both. Financial incentives promote many health behaviors, but effective ways to deliver health incentives remain uncertain. Psychologists randomly assigned CVS Caremark employees and their relatives and friends to one of four incentive programs or to usual care for smoking cessation. Would you believe that paying people to stop smoking is successful? Anything can be had for money! The natural history of tuberculosis begins with the inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms; a period of bacterial replication and dissemination ensues, followed by immunologic containment of viable bacilli. This state-of-affairs is called latent tuberculosis and almost everyone in my generation has it. The chances of developing clinical tuberculosis at a later timepoint is 5-15%, N Engl J Med reviews this important topic. The N Engl J Med case is a middle-aged nonsmoking woman with non-small-cell lung cancer. She develops intractable pain. Her terminal treatment is termed “palliative sedation”. The distinction between this approach and assisted suicide is discussed. Inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein has been shown to reduce LDL-C concentrations in addition to regular statin treatment in patients with hypercholesterolaemia or at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Inhibitors thus far have not prolonged life of persons at risk from cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, in the Lancet we review a paper on a CETP inhibitor in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. In the fetus, the ductus venosus shunts a portion of the left umbilical vein blood flow directly to the inferior vena cava. Thus, the ductus-venosus shunt allows oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the liver. Increased impedance to flow in the fetal ductus venosus at 11-13 weeks’-gestation is associated with fetal aneuploidies, cardiac defects and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. No consensus exists for the best way to monitor and when to trigger delivery in mothers of babies with fetal growth restriction. Lancet investigators aimed to assess whether or not changes in the fetal ductus venosus Doppler waveform could be used as indications for delivery instead of cardiotocography short-term variation (STV). Unfortunately, the results do not inspire confidence. Mortality in people in Africa with HIV infection starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is high, particularly in those with advanced disease, commonly complicated by cryptococcal meningitis, a treatable fungal meningeal disease. Therefore, investigators assessed the effect of a short period of community support to supplement clinic-based services combined with serum cryptococcal antigen screening. Just four short home visits by lay workers to provide adherence support combined with screening for cryptococcal meningitis led to a significant reduction in mortality in patients infected with HIV starting ART with advanced disease. The brachial plexus is a network of nerves, running from the spine, formed by the anterior rami of the lower four cervical nerves and first thoracic nerve (C5–C8, T1). Brachial plexus injuries can permanently impair hand function, yet present surgical reconstruction provides only poor results.
Ryan White HIV/AIDS: 25 Years of Passion, Purpose and Excellence
 
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This video highlights 25 years of passion, purpose, and excellence in the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.
Views: 1770 HRSAtube